Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation
Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) also known as ‘biological soil disinfestation’ or ‘reductive soil disinfestation’ is a pre-plant non-chemical soil disinfestation technique increasingly proposed as an alternative to chemical soil fumigation (CSF) for the control of several soil-borne diseases, plant-parasitic nematodes, and weeds in different vegetables and fruit crops (Shennan et al. 2014; Rosskopf et al. 2015).
Developed independently in Japan (Momma et al., 2013) and The Netherlands (Blok et al., 2000), for both open field and protected crops, the technique is gaining interest in the USA, China and other countries (Shennan et al., 2014).
The principle of the technique is to create a temporary anaerobic soil environment to stimulates the growth of facultative and obligate anaerobic microorganisms, that under anaerobic conditions, decompose the available carbon (C) source, producing organic acids, aldehydes, alcohols, ammonia, metal ions, and volatile organic compounds, that are suppressive or toxic for several soil-borne pests and diseases (Momma 2008; Huang et al. 2015; van Agtmaal et al. 2015).
The ASD treatment is applied in three steps: 1) amending the soil with a readily decomposable C source to initiate rapid soil microbial growth and respiration, 2) covering the bed with oxygen impermeable polyethylene mulch to prevent the diffusion of oxygen from the soil surface, 3) irrigating the soil to saturate the pore space and further reduce the presence of oxygen (Butler et al., 2014; Shennan et al., 2014).
The approach currently proposed in Florida, developed by researcher of the USDA-ARS, in collaboration with researchers of the University of California and of the University of Florida, consists in incorporating in the soil composted poultry litter (organic matter) and molasses (main C source) right before bed formation. Then, totally impermeable film (TIF) is used to mulch the bed and 2” of water are applied to saturate the soil. Three weeks after treatment application it is possible to punch the plastic and transplant the crop.
While ASD has proved to be effective against several soil-borne fungal and bacterial plant diseases, plant-parasitic nematodes and weeds, across a wide range of crops and environments (Butler et al., 2012a; 2012b; Lamers et al., 2010; Momma, 2008; Rosskopf et al., 2015; Shennan et al., 2014), its mechanism of control is still not fully understood, and a number of researchers around the world are working to explain the changes occurring in the soil during the ASD treatment and what is behind it.
At the same time, to facilitate the application of this technique at commercial level, researchers are evaluating i) different alternative low-cost and locally available C-sources, ii) the optimal application rate for each C source, iii) large scale application methods, iv) the effect of ASD on different crops and its impact on yield and product quality, v) the short and long term effect of ASD on the soil fertility, as well as vi) the potential impact of ASD on the environment.
- Di Gioia F., and M. Ozores-Hampton, J. Hong, N. Kokalis-Burelle and J. Albano X. Zhao, Z. Gao, C. Wilson, J. Thomas, K. Monaghan, M. Swisher, H. Guo, and E. N. Rosskopf. 2016. The effect of anaerobic soil disinfestation on weed and nematode control, fruit yield and quality of Florida fresh-market tomato. Hortscience 51:703-711. [pdf]
- Hong, J., F. Di Gioia, M. Ozores-Hampton, and E. Rosskopf. 2016. Comparison of carbon quantity in anaerobic soil disinfestation. Ameri. Phytopathol. Soc. https://www.apsnet.org/meetings/Documents/2016_meeting_abstracts/aps2016_843.htm
- Rosskopf, E., J. Hong, N. Kokalis-Burelle, M. Ozores-Hampton, F. Di Gioia, N. Roe, X. Zhao, B. Booker, and F. Sances. 2016. New approaches to management of Fusarium wilt of tomato in Florida. 5th international symposium on tomato disease. Malaga, Spain, June 13-16.
- Hong, J. C., F. Di Gioia, M. Ozores-Hampton, and E. N. Rosskopf. 2016. Effect of molasses in ASD: focus on the soil microbiome. Methyl Bromide Alternatives Outreach. https://mbao.org/static/docs/confs/2016-orlando/papers/16hong_mbao_2016.pdf
- Di Gioia, F., M. Ozores-Hampton , X. Zhao , J. Thomas , P. Wilson, Z. Li, J. Hong, J. Albano, E. N. Rosskopf. 2016. Anaerobic soil disinfestation impact on nutrient dynamics in fresh-market tomato. Methyl Bromide Alternatives Outreach. https://mbao.org/static/docs/confs/2016-orlando/papers/15di_gioia_mbao_2016_2.pdf
- Di Gioia, F., M. Ozores-Hampton, J. Hong, N. K. Burelle, H. Guo, X. Zhao, E. N. Rosskopf. 2016. Optimizing ASD for Florida fresh-market tomato production. Methyl Bromide Alternatives Outreach. https://mbao.org/static/docs/confs/2016-orlando/papers/14digioiafasd_1.pdf
- Rosskopf, E. N., J. Hong, M. Ozores-Hampton, X. Zhao, F. Di Gioia, Z. Black, Z. Gao, C. Wilson, J. Thomas, K. Monaghan, K. Sattanno, A. DeLong, M. Swisher, H. Guo, J. Muramoto, N. Kokalis-Burelle, C. Shennan, J. Wang, Z. Li, U. Shrestha, and D. M. Butler. 2016. USDA, AES Areawide Project on Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation. Methyl Bromide Alternatives Outreach. https://mbao.org/static/docs/confs/2016-orlando/papers/13rosskopfe_asd_areawide.pdf
- Di Gioia, F., M. Ozores-Hampton, J. Hong, N. Kokalis-Burelle, J. Albano, X. Zhao, and E. Rosskopf. 2016. Anaerobic soil disinfestation effects on weed and nematode control, plant growth, fruit yield and quality of fresh-market tomato . Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Annu. Conf. Program. http://ashs.confex.com/ashs/2016/webprogram/Paper24180.html
- Di Gioia, F., M. Ozores-Hampton, J. Hong, and E. Rosskopf. 2016. Anaerobic soil disinfestation: carbon rate effects on soil pH, temperature, redox potential, and tomato plant growth. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Annu. Conf. Program. http://ashs.confex.com/ashs/2016/webprogram/Paper24454.html
- United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service
- USDA-ARS Pacific-Area Methyl Bromide Alternatives Program
- Introduction to Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation as a Fumigant Alternative
- Assessment of beneficial microorganisms: Trichoderma, Actinomycetes, and Bacillus in anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD)
- Implementing Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation for Soilborne Disease Control in Strawberries and Apple Nurseries
- Exploring the combination of biofumigation and anaerobic soil disinfestation for soil quality enhancement in organic vegetable cropping systems
- Mini-paper – Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation and other techniques of ‘non chemical’ soil disinfestation techniques
- Integrated soil-borne disease and weed management for organic strawberries using anaerobic soil disinfestation, broccoli residue incorporation and mustard cake application
- History and Principles of Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation
- Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD) for suppressing Verticillium dahliae in CA strawberries
- A Novel Strategy for Soil-borne Disease Management: Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD) Webinar
- Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation to Control Soil Borne Pathogens: Current Research Findings and On-farm Implementation